Research and Science

Lexxica develops advanced learning systems for professional educators and ambitious people with curious minds. Natural Flow Learning is a synthesis of Lexxica’s patented direct knowledge acquisition system and positive psychology. Our company’s founders are top educators with deep understanding of semantics, item difficulty analysis, adaptive game science, and educational psychology.

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Natural Motivation

Natural motivation is when one’s reaction to external experiences causes one to take positive action (Dobbin, 2012). Educational psychologists recommend employing game rewards to promote more such positive experiences (Howard-Jones & Jay, 2016). They also recommend team-based cooperative learning to increase overall academic achievement (Slavin, 1980). WAM unleashes the full potential of natural motivation.

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Flow State

Flow is when the mind is so attracted to doing something that it loses track of time (Csikszentimihalyi, 1990). WAM promotes Flow by carefully managing the ratio of unknown new words for study. The learner’s focus remains within the channel below frustration and above boredom. WAM’s ability to adapt and manage the ratio of unknown items for each learner constitutes a practical embodiment of Krashen’s i+1 comprehensible input hypothesis (1985).

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Absolute Lexical Ability

Vocabulary is assessed through a series of IRT questions that identify which specific words are known and which words are not known. The game then prepares a personally tailored vocabulary list for each learner and it teaches the most frequently occurring unknown words first (Browne & Culligan, 2012). WAM’s adaptive vocabulary-centered approach is among the fastest ways to increase overall proficiency and scores on standard tests. Learn more…

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Paired-Associates and Spaced Repetition

Words & Monsters employs paired-associate tasks and Spaced Repetition to efficiently transfer new knowledge into long-term memory. This form of direct study is one of the most effective ways to acquire automatic recall for new vocabulary (Hulstijin, 1992; Elgort, 2011; McLean & Hogg, 2013). Learn more…

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Research Proven

Many students at all levels of ability have used our technology to quickly improve their overall English comprehension and standard test scores. Independent research at universities shows increased average scores on standard tests such as TOEFL and TOEIC. Learners score higher because they have learned more of the words that will occur frequently on their next test and because their listening and reading speeds have increased. Learn more…

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The Thrill of Uncertain Rewards

Educational psychologists encourage app designers to integrate uncertain-type game rewards so as to increase emotional attachment and create more pleasurable and memorable experiences (Howard-Jones & Jay, 2016). Dopamine is the neurotransmitter most associated with emotional attachment and long-term memory and uncertain-type rewards are understood to trigger more dopamine than any other type of psychological reward (Fiorillo, Tobler, & Schultz, 2003). WAM is able to control the uncertainty and thrills for both the game rewards and the individual study tasks.

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Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning tournaments have been shown to produce higher overall academic achievement (Slavin, 1980). Students at all different levels of ability; and from all around the world, have participated in Lexxica’s Team Challenge Tournaments. Practical experience and controlled study data indicate that students on teams can increase average outcomes by about 50% compared to students working alone and top teams can more than double their academic outcomes. As one teacher put it, “The Team Challenge transformed the experience from self study to a team effort where students pull together and motivate each other.” Learn more…

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